What the command-and-control experts say:
“Control is not something that can be imposed on a complex adaptive system” 1
Meanwhile, things have moved on:
While western armed forces have implemented a command and control doctrine suited for complex situations, businesses implemented the old command and control.
The characteristics of this new command and control can be found in Power to the Edge1. In addition to this, it turns out that the solution found for guiding question 3, the highly complex internal communication space, appears to be in line with Power to the Edge.
1 Power to the Edge. D.S. Alberts, R. E. Hayes. US Department of Defense.
A surprising contribution came from experienced employees:
Despite it isn’t intended, controls come with a particular message: We do not trust you!
This message has consequences:
Why should I go the extra mile with your strategy or project when I am not being trusted?